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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Long-term response of spring flora to chronic herbivory and deer exclusion in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

Published source details

Webster C.R., Jenkins M.A. & Rock J.H. (2005) Long-term response of spring flora to chronic herbivory and deer exclusion in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Biological Conservation, 125, 297-307


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use wire fencing to exclude large native herbivores Forest Conservation

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1996-2004 in temperate mixed forest in Tennessee, USA (Webster, Jenkins & Rock 2005) found no effect of excluding deer on spring flower species richness and diversity. Numbers of species (exclosure: 1.5-6; unfenced: 2-6/100 m2) and species diversity (Shannon's index exclosure: 0.25-0.75; unfenced: 0.25-0.90) were similar between treatments. Data werecollected in 2004 in five exclosure (fenced to exclude deer browsing in 1996) and five control (unfenced) plots (10 × 10 m) in each of three sites.