Study

Frost damage to planted Norway spruce seedlings—influence of site preparation and seedling type

  • Published source details Langvall O., Nilsson U. & Örlander G. (2001) Frost damage to planted Norway spruce seedlings—influence of site preparation and seedling type. Forest Ecology and Management, 141, 223-235.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use herbicides after tree planting

Action Link
Forest Conservation

Mechanically remove understory vegetation after tree planting

Action Link
Forest Conservation

Prepare the ground before tree planting

Action Link
Forest Conservation
  1. Use herbicides after tree planting

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1988-1995 in boreal forest in Sweden (2) found no effect of herbicide treatment on frost damage to planted Norway spruce Picea abies seedlings. The percentage of seedlings with frost injuries was similar between treatments (site 1: 6-13%; site 2: 30-43%). Five blocks of four herbicide (glyphosate emulsion applied directly to the leaves of the ground vegetation whenever necessary through 1989-1993) and four control plots (4 × 4 m) were established in 1988 in each of two sites. Data were collected in each plot two growing seasons after planting of spruce seedlings.

     

  2. Mechanically remove understory vegetation after tree planting

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1988-1995 in boreal forest in Sweden (Langvall, Nilsson & Örlander 2001) found no effect of mowing treatment on frost damage to Norway spruce Picea abies planted seedlings. Percentage of seedlings with frost injuries was similar between treatments (6-11% in site 1, 25-35% in site 2). Five blocks of four mowed (ground vegetation cut to <20 cm height when necessary 1989-1993) and four control plots (4×4 m) were established in 1988 in each of two sites. Data were collected in each plot two growing seasons after planting of spruce seedlings.

     

  3. Prepare the ground before tree planting

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1988-1995 in boreal forest in Sweden (Langvall, Nilsson & Örlander 2001) found no effect of mounding treatment on frost damage to planted Norway spruce Picea abies seedlings. The percentage of seedlings with frost injuries (site 1: 6-11%; site 2: 27-38%) was similar between treatments. Spruce seedlings were planted in five blocks of four mounds (50 × 50 cm, 10–20 cm high soil mounds created in the year of planting) and four control plots (4 × 4 m) that were established in 1988 in each of two sites. Data were collected in each plot two growing seasons after planting.

     

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust