Planting seedlings in tree islands versus plantations as a large-scale tropical forest restoration strategy

  • Published source details Holl K.D., Zahawi R.A., Cole R.J., Ostertag R. & Cordell S. (2011) Planting seedlings in tree islands versus plantations as a large-scale tropical forest restoration strategy. Restoration Ecology, 19, 470-479.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use different planting or seeding methods

Action Link
Forest Conservation
  1. Use different planting or seeding methods

    A replicated, paired-sites study in 2004-2008 in tropical forest in Costa Rica (Holl et al. 2011) found no effect of planting method on seedling survival, height, and canopy area. For the four planted species, there was no difference between patch and plantation treatments for: survival (Terminalia amazonia: 70-75%; Vochysia guatemalensis: 74-77%; Erythrina poeppigiana: 84-87%; Inga edulis: 95-97%), height increase (T. amazonia: 1.8-2.3 m; V. guatemalensis: 2.5-3.0 m; E. poeppigiana: 3.7-3.9 m; I. edulis: 4.2-4.8 m) and canopy area (T. amazonia: 2-4 m2; V. guatemalensis: 5-7 m2; E. poeppigiana: 7-8 m2; I. edulis: 25-30 m2). Twelve pairs of two treatments (50 × 50 m): patch (two small, two medium, and two large patches each planted with 5, 13 and 25 seedlings of the four species respectively) and plantation (313 seedlings of the four species planted throughout) were established in 2004-2005. Data were collected three years after planting.


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