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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Establishing grazing and grazing-excluded patches increases plant and invertebrate diversity in a Mediterranean oak woodland

Published source details

Bugalho M.N., Lecomte X., Gonçalves M., Caldeira M.C. & Branco M. (2011) Establishing grazing and grazing-excluded patches increases plant and invertebrate diversity in a Mediterranean oak woodland. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 2133-2139


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use wire fencing to exclude large native herbivores Forest Conservation

A replicated, paired-sites study in 1979-1990 in Mediterranean oak woodland in south-east Portugal (Bugalho et al. 2011) found that excluding red deer Cervus elaphus and fallow deer Dama dama increased the biomass of herbaceous species and the relative cover of legumes Fabaceae, but did not affect the number of plant species. The biomass of herbaceous species was 177 g/m2 in ungrazed and 100 g/m2 in grazed plots. Relative cover of legumes was 10% in ungrazed and 5% in grazed plots. The total number of plant species was similar in grazed (44) and ungrazed (42) plots. Five blocks of paired ungrazed (fenced) and grazed (unfenced, grazed mainly by red deer and fallow deer) plots (25×25 m) were established in the study area in 2001. In 2003, plant biomass and the relative cover of plants were measured in four subplots (2×4 m) within each plot.