Individual study: Control of the freshwater fouling bivalve Corbicula fluminea by halogenation
Doherty F.G., Farris J.L., Cherry D.S. & Cairns J. (1986) Control of the freshwater fouling bivalve Corbicula fluminea by halogenation. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 15, 535-542
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Asian clams: Add chemicals to the water
A controlled, replicated laboratory and field study in 1983-1985 in the USA (Doherty et al. 1986) found that dosing clams with chlorine and bromine killed up to 95% of Asian clams Corbicula fluminea. Dosing at higher concentrations and higher temperatures killed clams in a shorter time. Adults and juveniles were similarly sensitive to both chlorine and bromine and both chemicals were equally effective. In the laboratory, < 53% of clams died when exposed to a 32 day dose at 0.2-1.0 mg/litre total residual chlorine (TRC) at 16 °C. Using the same doses and duration but at higher temperatures (>18 °C) killed > 53% of clams. In the laboratory, a 14 day low dose (0.25 mg/litre TRC) followed by an 18 day high dose (0.5-1.0 mg/litre TRC) killed > 80% of the clams at 20 °C. A constant high dose (0.5-1.0 mg/litre TRC) for 32 days at 20 °C killed 60-95% of the clams. In the field, 90% of clams were killed when exposed to a 28 day dose of 0.25 mg/litre TRC during the spring when ambient temperatures were 20-25 °C. In the autumn, <24% of clams were killed when exposed to a 28 day dose of <0.5 mg/litre TRC, when ambient temperatures were lower (12-20 °C). No clams died in the control treatments. In the laboratory tests, 30 adult clams were placed in one of five replicate artificial streams with chlorine treatments. Juveniles were added to some replicates. Survival of clams was recorded daily. In the field, two flow-through chambers (1 x 0.25 m) in spring and three in autumn were used to expose 25-30 Asian clams with chlorinated water. Chambers were placed at four sites within the intake stream of an industrial plant which suffered from Asian clam fouling. A control group of clams was exposed to non-chlorinated water. Survival of clams was recorded.