Short-term predator avoidance behaviour by invasive and native amphipods in the Great Lakes

  • Published source details Pennuto C. & Keppler D. (2008) Short-term predator avoidance behaviour by invasive and native amphipods in the Great Lakes. Aquatic Ecology, 42, 629-641.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Ponto-Caspian gammarids: Control movement of gammarids

Action Link
Control of Freshwater Invasive Species
  1. Ponto-Caspian gammarids: Control movement of gammarids

    A replicated, controlled experimental study conducted in 2008, on specimens from a canal in the USA (Pennuto & Keppler 2008) found that movement of invasive freshwater shrimp Echinogammarus ischnus, slowed down or stopped when exposed to water that had previously contained predatory fishes.  Movement patterns were significantly lower when compared with a control treatment, i.e. fish-free water. Increased avoidance behaviour was associated with increased density of fishes previously in the water. The treatment water had been in contact with either the round goby Apollonia melanostoma, yellow perch Perca flavescens, black crappie Promoxis nigromaculatus, rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum or the brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus. One shrimp was put in each of two tanks (7 x 7 cm) containing 1 cm deep freshwater. One tank was fed with water from a 40 l tank containing 1-10 fishes at 2 ml/second over a 30 second period. The other tank was fed with water without fish. Shrimp movements were observed and measured.

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