Study

American Bullfrogs as Invasive Species: A Review of the Introduction, Subsequent Problems, Management Options, and Future Directions

  • Published source details Snow N.P. & Witmer G (2010) American Bullfrogs as Invasive Species: A Review of the Introduction, Subsequent Problems, Management Options, and Future Directions. 24th Vertebrate Pest Conference, University of California, Davis, USA,

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

American bullfrog control: Application of a biocide

Action Link
Control of Freshwater Invasive Species
  1. American bullfrog control: Application of a biocide

    A replicated, controlled laboratory study from 2008 to 2009 at the University of California, USA (Snow & Witmer 2010) reported that a number of chemicals killed American bullfrog.  Caffeine (10% solution), chloroxylenol (5% solution), and a combined treatment of Permethrin (4.6% solution) and Rotenone (1% solution) each achieved 100% mortality.  Dosed on their own, Permethrin (4.6% solution) and Rotenone (1% solution) each achieved 40% mortality.  In the trial, approximately 4 ml of treatment solution was sprayed on the entire dorsal surface of randomly-selected groups of bullfrogs using a handheld plastic spray bottle. There were five bullfrogs in each group.  Water was used as the solvent for all materials.  To improve solubility, a small amount of sodium benzoate was added to the caffeine solution, and a small amount of alcohol was added to the chloroxylenol solution.

     

Output references

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