Individual study: Crop residue management effects on organic matter in paddy soils — The lignin component
Bierke A., Kaiser K. & Guggenberger G. (2008) Crop residue management effects on organic matter in paddy soils — The lignin component. Geoderma, 146, 48-57
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Amend the soil with fresh plant material or crop remains
A replicated experiment from 1990 to 2005 on silty-clay and sandy-silt in China and the Philippines (Bierke and Kaiser, 2008) found 41% higher soil organic carbon and total nitrogen at Changsha when residue was incorporated, compared to a 16% increase when residue was removed. There were no changes in soil organic carbon or total nitrogen at Nanjing or Los Baños. At Changsha there were three treatments: control (no fertilizer), nitrogen (applied at 265 kg N/ha), and nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium (NPK – applied at 265, 35, and 80 kg N, P, K/ha respectively). All plots were intercropped with Chinese milk vetch Astragalus sinicus. Within each treatment were two sub-treatments: residue removed, and residue incorporated (harvested rice Oryza sativa crop remains). At Nanjing, two treatments were applied to a rice-wheat Triticum aestivum rotation: residue removed and residue incorporated (wheat crop remains). All plots received 200 kg N/ha. Los Baños treatments included: continuous flooding, three week soil drying, soil drying plus tillage, and alternate wetting/drying of rice. Within these were ‘residue removed’ and ‘residue incorporated’ treatments. Soils were sampled between rice crops or just after wheat sowing. Plot sizes were not specified.