Diversification of rice-based cropping systems to improve soil fertility, sustainable productivity and economics

  • Published source details Ali R.I., Awan T.H., Ahmad M., Saleem M.U. & Akhtar M. (2012) Diversification of rice-based cropping systems to improve soil fertility, sustainable productivity and economics. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 22, 108-112.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Amend the soil with crops grown as green manures

Action Link
Soil Fertility
  1. Amend the soil with crops grown as green manures

    A controlled, randomized, replicated experiment in 2007-2008 on clay loam in Pakistan (Ali et al. 2012) found the highest rice yield after a sesbania Sesbania rostrata green manure (3.73 t/ha), then mungbean Vigna radiata (3.57 t/ha) and berseem Trifolium alexandrinum (3.53 t/ha) green manures, compared to the rice Oryza sativa-wheat Triticum aestivum only rotation (2.59 t/ha). Wheat yield was also higher under sesbania (2.81 t/ha), mungbean (2.69 t/ha) and cowpeas Vigna unguiulata (2.63 t/ha) compared to rice-wheat only (2.59 t/ha). Soil organic carbon increased from 0.67% to 0.72% (of total soil collected) during the experiment. Four green manures were grown and harvested prior to the planting of a rice-wheat rotation, which included: mungbean, cowpeas, sunflower Helianthus annuus, sesbania. Three more green manures were sown after harvesting the rice crop including: berseem, lentil Lens culinaris, canola Brassica napus. These were compared to a rice-wheat crop only rotation. All green manures were incorporated into the soil before rice or wheat was transplanted or sown. Plots were 10 x 14 m. There were three replicates. Soils were sampled before sowing and after harvest of the rice-wheat crops to 20 cm depth.


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