Individual study: Soil physical properties affected by long-term fertilization
Pernes-Debuyser a. & Tessier D. (2004) Soil physical properties affected by long-term fertilization. European Journal of Soil Science, 55, 505-512
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Amend the soil with formulated chemical compounds
A replicated experiment from 1929 to 1999 on clay soil in France (Pernes-Debuyser and Tessier, 2004) found the highest soil organic carbon levels under manure application (37.2 g/kg soil) compared to the control (7.1 g/kg). The remaining treatments had carbon levels similar to or less than the control. Water retention was highest under manure application under low and higher water potential (0.32 g/cm3 and 0.009 g/cm3 respectively), compared to nitrogen and potassium treatments (0.17 g/cm3) (control figures not presented). Manure also had higher soil stability (81.9 % large soil aggregates) compared to phosphorus (22.2%) and nitrogen and potassium treatments (33.8%). Treatments included: no application (control, 10 plots); nitrogen (150 kg/ha/year); potassium (150 kg/ha/year); phosphorus (1t/ha/year); calcium (1 t/ha/year), horse manure (100 t/ha/year). Each treatment was replicated twice in 5 x 5 m plots. Soils were sampled at the end of the experiment.