Individual study: Impact of long-term application of fertilizer, manure and lime under intensive cropping on physical properties and organic carbon content of an Alfisol
Hati K.M., Swarup A., Mishra B., Manna M.C., Wanjari R.H., Mandal K.G. & Misra A.K. (2008) Impact of long-term application of fertilizer, manure and lime under intensive cropping on physical properties and organic carbon content of an Alfisol. Geoderma, 148, 173-179
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Amend the soil using a mix of organic and inorganic amendments
A controlled, randomized, replicated experiment in 2001 on sandy loam in Ranchi, India (Hati et al. 2008) found that soil organic carbon decreased in all treatments over the cropping period. The decrease was less under NPK (nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium) plus manure (8.7%) and NPK plus lime (10.9%) compared to the nitrogen fertilizer treatment alone (28.3%). Soil organic carbon levels were much higher in NPK plus manure (7,167 kg/ha), NPK plus lime (6,633 kg/ha) and NPK-only (6,567 kg/ha) treatments compared to nitrogen fertilizer (4,800 kg/ha) and control (5,167 kg/ha) treatments. NPK with manure or lime improved soil structure, and nitrogen fertilizer worsened soil structure compared to the control. A long-term fertilizer experiment established in 1972 used an annual soybean Glycine max-wheat Triticum aestivum rotation. Six treatments were replicated four times on 10 x 10 m plots: control, nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen and phosphorus, NPK, NPK plus manure and NPK plus lime. Soils were sampled in 2001 to 60 cm depth.