Individual study: Model programs for reproduction and management: ex situ and in situ conservation of toads of the family Bufonidae
Johnson R.R. (1994) Model programs for reproduction and management: ex situ and in situ conservation of toads of the family Bufonidae. Pages 243-254 in: J.T. Collins, K. Adler & J.B. Murphy (eds.) Captive Management and Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles, Contributions to Herpetology Vol. 11, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Ithaca, New York.
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
A study in 1991–1992 in Wyoming, USA (Johnson 1994) found that a translocated pair of Wyoming toads Bufo baxteri bred in the first year. In 1992, tadpoles were produced from eggs laid within the breeding enclosure in the release pond. Toads did not breed in the original pond, the only remaining wild population. Female and juvenile toads were captured from the wild and overwintered in captivity for four months. One of the females and a wild-captured male were released into a breeding enclosure within the release pond.
Release captive-bred toads
A study in western Guánica, Puerto Rico (Johnson 1994) reported that a small number of captive-bred Puerto Rican crested toads Peltophryne lemur survived after release. Two of a group of 640 released were observed in 1989 and others sighted in 1992 and 1993. Predation by mongooses had a significant effect on the survival of radio-tracked released adults. Three thousand newly metamorphosed toads were released in 1988. A further 12 captive-bred adults were released with radio-transmitters.
Captive breeding toads
A review in 1994 of captive breeding programmes for the Puerto Rican crested toad Peltophryne lemur (Johnson 1994) reported that the species had bred at three of the 14 zoos and institutions with captive populations.