Individual study: Disease management and variable planting patterns in peanut
Nuti R.C., Faircloth W.H., Lamb M.C., Sorensen R.B., Davidson J.I. & Brenneman T.B. (2008) Disease management and variable planting patterns in peanut. Peanut Science, 35, 11-17
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Use pesticides only when pests or crop damage reach threshold levels
A randomised, replicated, controlled study in 2002-2004 in Georgia, USA (Nuti et al. 2008) found more severe stem rot Sclerotium rolfsii in sprayed plots treated when weather and soil temperature thresholds were met than in conventional plots treated regularly (10-22 vs. 5-8 average disease rating), on two occasions. Stem rot severity was similar between plots on three other occasions. Leaf spot (Mycosphaerellaceae) severity showed inconsistent differences between threshold-based and conventional plots (1.3-4.3 vs. 1.9-3.9 average disease ratings). Yields were similar in threshold-based and conventional plots on three occasions (3,290-4,750 vs. 3,260-4,980 kg/ha), but lower in threshold-based than conventional plots on two occasions (4,200 vs. 4,560 kg/ha and 3,040 vs. 3,490 kg/ha). Monetary return was similar between threshold-based and conventional plots on three occasions (US$1,050-1,750/ha vs. US$1,110-1,770/ha), but lower in threshold-based plots on one occasion (US$1,480 vs. US$1,580). Fungicide regimes were tested in peanut Arachis hypogea crops for three years at two sites (up to six occasions in total). Rainfall thresholds were used to time fungicide sprays, and soil temperature thresholds were used to select between tebuconazole and chlorothalonil fungicides. Weather and soil temperature closely related to types and extents of fungal diseases. Effects on natural enemies were not presented.