Individual study: Vine mealybug sex pheromone increases citrus mealybug parasitism by Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Girault)
Franco J.C., da Silva E.B., Fortuna T., Cortegano E., Branco M., Suma P., Torre I.L., Russo A., Elyahu M., Protasov A., Levi-Zada A. & Mendel Z. (2011) Vine mealybug sex pheromone increases citrus mealybug parasitism by Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Girault). Biological Control, 58, 230-238
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use chemicals to attract natural enemies
A randomised, replicated, controlled experiment in 2006-2008 in Israel, Italy and Portugal (Franco et al. 2011) found greater citrus mealybug Planococcus citri parasitism in traps with lavandulyl senecioate lures (19-51 parasitoid wasps Anagyrus sp. emerged from citrus mealybugs/trap) than in control traps (0-20 wasps emerged) in seven of 10 trials. Parasitism was similar between traps in three trials (5-10 vs. 2-4 wasps emerged). Wasps took 1.6-3.5 fewer days to emerge from mealybugs collected from baited than from control traps, suggesting wasps had found baited traps more rapidly. More parasitoid wasps were found in baited (1-16 females/trap) than control (0-2 females) traps in five of nine trials, but very few wasps occurred in the four other trials (in both treatments). Parasitism levels and wasp numbers were similar between traps with lavandulyl isovalerate lures and control traps in four trials, and similar between traps with planococcyl acetate lures and controls in six out of seven trials. The dose of lavandulyl senecioate (ranging 25-1,000 µg) did not affect wasp numbers. The chemicals (all naturally released by mealybugs) were tested in citrus and banana plantations and vineyards at seven locations. Each treatment was replicated 5-14 times per site.