Individual study: Pheromone-induced movement of nymphs of the predator, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Sant'Ana J., Bruni R., Abdul-Baki A.A. & Aldrich J.R. (1997) Pheromone-induced movement of nymphs of the predator, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Biological Control, 10, 123-128
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Use chemicals to attract natural enemies
A replicated study in 1995 in Maryland, USA (Sant'Ana et al. 1997) found more predatory spined soldier bugs Podisus maculiventris in six green bean Phaseolus vulgaris rows positioned close to pheromone chemical dispensers (averaging 4 immature spined soldier bugs) than in six bean rows further away (1 immature). More spined solider bugs were recovered in the six closest (0.0-4.5% recovered) than the six farthest (0.0-1.4%) bean rows at four and seven days after their release, but numbers were similar one day after their release (0.0-1.3 vs. 0.0-1.6%). Numbers of the pest Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis were similar in the six closest (11-20 larvae/row) and six farthest (5-39 larvae) rows from the pheromone dispensers. Immature spined solider bug were also attracted to the pheromone in a wind tunnel experiment. Three Soldier Bug Attractors (dispensers containing a pheromone produced by adult male spined solider bugs) were placed along one edge of a 13-row plot of green beans. Immature spined solider bugs were released into the middle row of the plot (averaging 261 individuals/plot) and monitored to assess their spread towards or away from the dispensers. Plots were 9.7 x 6.3 m and replicated seven times.