Individual study: Field responses of predaceous arthropods to methyl salicylate: a meta-analysis and case study in cranberries
Rodriguez-Saona C., Kaplan I., Braasch J., Chinnasamy D. & Williams L. (2011) Field responses of predaceous arthropods to methyl salicylate: a meta-analysis and case study in cranberries. Biological Control, 59, 294-303
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Use chemicals to attract natural enemies
A randomised, replicated, controlled study in 2008-2009 in cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon bogs in New Jersey, USA (Rodriguez-Saona et al. 2011) found 4.5 times more hoverflies (Syrphidae), 1.8 times more lady beetles (Coccinellidae) and 7.6 times more green lacewings (Chrysopidae) in traps baited with methyl salicylate lures than in controls with no chemical. Baited traps had more hoverflies for seven of eight weeks but lady beetle and lacewing numbers were higher for only two of eight weeks. Flower bug (Anthocoridae), parasitoid fly (Tachinidae) and pest leafhopper (Cicadellidae) numbers were similar in the baited and control traps. In 2009, hoverflies were 84% more abundant in traps containing lures than in controls, but there was no effect for traps placed 2.5, 5 or 10 m away from lures. There was no effect of methyl salicylate on lady beetle numbers in 2009. A meta-analysis found 91 observations from 14 studies testing methyl salicylate lures on 34 natural enemy species (across nine crop types). Forty-one observations showed positive effects of lures and 50 showed no effect. The 2008 study applied single baited and control traps to 15 cranberry bogs, the 2009 study included 10 bogs (5 with lures, 5 with controls).