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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Attempted introduction of the endangered green and golden bell frog to Long Reef Golf Course: a step towards recovery?

Published source details

Pyke G.H., Rowley J., Shoulder J. & White A.W. (2008) Attempted introduction of the endangered green and golden bell frog to Long Reef Golf Course: a step towards recovery? Australian Zoologist, 34, 361-372


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Release captive-bred green and golden bell frogs Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1998–2004 at a created wetland on a golf course in Long Reef, Sydney, Australia (Pyke et al. 2008) found that captive-bred green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea released as tadpoles did not establish a self-sustaining population. Once tadpole releases had stopped the number of frogs declined to zero. Only 45 adult frogs were recorded. A few males were heard calling, but breeding was not recorded. Releases did not result in any metamorph or immature frogs if they occurred during autumn, involved low numbers of tadpoles, if ponds dried out soon after release or if fish were present. Successive releases into fish-free ponds were decreasingly successful in terms of numbers of metamorphs and immatures. Sixteen ponds, 12 interconnected (20–200 cm), were created in 1996–1997 with planting of aquatic emergent vegetation and shrubs. A total of 9,000 captive-bred 3–4-week-old tadpoles were released into the ponds over 11 occasions in 1998–2003. Amphibian monitoring was undertaken at 1–4 week intervals using artificial shelters around ponds, dip-netting and visual count surveys.

 

Create wetland Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1998–2004 of created wetland on a golf course in Long Reef, Sydney, Australia (Pyke et al. 2008) found that captive-bred green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea tadpoles released into a created wetland did not establish a self-sustaining population. Once releases had stopped, the number of frogs declined to zero. Only 45 adult frogs were recorded. A few males were heard calling, but breeding was not recorded. Releases did not result in any metamorph or immature frogs if they occurred during autumn or involved low numbers of tadpoles, if ponds dried out soon after release or if fish were present. Successive releases into fish-free ponds were less successful in terms of numbers of metamorphs and immatures. Sixteen ponds, 12 of which were inter-connected (20–200 cm), were created in 1996–1997, with aquatic emergent vegetation and shrubs planted. A total of 9,000 captive-bred 3–4 week old tadpoles were released into the ponds over 11 occasions in 1998–2003. Amphibian monitoring was undertaken at 1–4 week intervals using artificial shelters around ponds, dip-netting and visual count surveys.