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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Enhancing amphibian biodiversity on golf courses with seasonal wetlands

Published source details

Scott D.E., Metts B.S. & Whitfield Gibbons J. (2008) Enhancing amphibian biodiversity on golf courses with seasonal wetlands. Pages 285-292 in: Urban Herpetology. SSAR, Salt Lake City.

This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Remove or control fish by drying out ponds Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1999–2001 of a seasonal wetland bay in South Carolina, USA (Scott, Metts & Whitfield Gibbons 2008) found that removing fish by drying the bay increased amphibian species richness. Before removal the bay supported only cricket frogs Acris gryllus. After fish removal the bay supported nine amphibian species including the Carolina gopher frog Rana capito. Amphibians were sampled in 1999 before fish removal and in the spring of 2001.


Create ponds for amphibians Amphibian Conservation

A site comparison study in 1999–2001 of created ponds, lakes and streams on golf courses in Georgia and South Carolina, USA (Scott, Metts & Whitfield Gibbons 2008) found that numbers of amphibian species in created seasonal water bodies were more similar to natural water bodies than created permanent water bodies. Created seasonal water bodies supported 18 species (at least four were breeding), compared to 11 in created permanent water bodies and 24 in natural seasonal water bodies. The number of fish species was 15–16 in created and 10 in natural water bodies. Three amphibian species made up 99% of captures on golf courses with only permanent water bodies and 64% on those that had permanent and seasonal wetlands. Five golf courses from four to over 25 years old were selected. Three had permanent and two also had seasonal water bodies. Eleven natural seasonal wetlands were also sampled. Monitoring was over four days/three nights at two monthly intervals using minnow and hoop-net traps, dip-netting and visual surveys. Drift-fencing (50 m) with pitfall traps was installed at seasonal water bodies for one year.