Individual study: Notes on the captive husbandry and reproduction of the Texas salamander Eurycea neotenes at the Dallas Aquarium
Roberts D.T., Schleser D.M. & Jordan T.L. (1995) Notes on the captive husbandry and reproduction of the Texas salamander Eurycea neotenes at the Dallas Aquarium. Herpetological Review, 26, 23-25
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Amphibians: Provide particular plants as breeding areas or egg laying sites
A small, controlled study in 1990–1994 of Texas salamanders Eurycea neotenes in Dallas, USA found that captive breeding was successful in a heavily planted aquarium but not in aquariums without plants. Between 1990 and 1993, a pair of salamanders housed in a planted aquarium produced 19 eggs (in February 1991) but none were produced by salamander pairs housed in an aquarium containing a gravel substrate or one with partially buried rocks and rock shards over the same period. The eggs were fixed singly to live plants. Four of the eggs hatched and three larvae were reared to maturity. The planted aquarium contained java moss Vesicularia dubyana and swamp-weed Hygrophila sp.. Eggs were removed to a separate aquarium to avoid predation by the adult salamanders or snails.
Amphibians: Provide artificial aquifers for species which breed in upwelling springs
A small, before-and-after study in 1990–1994 in Dallas, USA found that Texas salamanders Eurycea neotenes bred more successfully in an aquarium with an artificial aquifer compared to without, although no statistical tests were carried out. With access to the aquifer one female deposited eggs in April 1993 (number not reported), a second female laid 40 eggs in May, and 50 in March 1994. Without access to the aquifer one female laid 19 eggs in February 1991 but no other breeding activity was observed. Prior to 1993, salamander pairs had been kept within one of three aquariums, one with gravel substrate, one heavily planted with aquatic plants, and one with partially buried rocks and rock shards. The only eggs laid were in the planted aquarium, fixed singly to live plants. In 1993, two pairs of salamanders were placed in an aquarium with a 1.2 m long acrylic tube filled with limestone shards attached to the bottom. Water was pumped up through this aquifer to replicate an upwelling spring.
Captive breeding salamanders (including newts)
A small, replicated study in 1990–1994 of Texas salamanders Eurycea neotenes at the Dallas Aquarium, USA (Roberts, Schleser & Jordan 1995) found that captive breeding was successful under certain conditions. In 1991, the female in a planted tank deposited 19 eggs. Eggs were transferred to a dark tank and four hatched. After one year, two of the three surviving captive-bred salamanders laid fully developed eggs. No further reproductive behaviour was seen for 1.5 years. The one original and one captive-bred female placed in an artificial aquifer laid eggs in 1–2 years. Larvae left in the aquifer were not predated by the parents over two months. Three pairs of wild-caught salamanders were housed in separate 4 L aquaria with water flow (22°C). One had gravel substrate, one contained plants and the other partially buried rocks. Fourteen additional animals were housed in a 189 L aquarium with water flow and pipe sections. One original and one captive-bred pair were placed in an artificial 1.2 m long aquifer.