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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Increased use of ponds by breeding natterjack toads, Bufo calamita, following management

Published source details

Phillips R.A., Patterson D. & Shimmings P. (2002) Increased use of ponds by breeding natterjack toads, Bufo calamita, following management. Herpetological Journal, 12, 75-78


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs by fencing Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1991–1999 of 17 ponds in a reserve in Caerlaverock, Scotland, UK (Phillips, Patterson & Shimmings 2002) found that pond restoration with livestock exclusion increased natterjack toad Bufo calamita use of ponds for breeding. Out of 12 ponds restored in 1995–1998, 11 were used for breeding every year until 1999, compared to just four before restoration. Toads started to breed in the additional ponds one or two years after restoration. Toads continued to breed in ponds used before restoration and there was little change in use of unmanaged ponds. Of the 11 ponds restored in 1995–1996, 10 were used for breeding every year until 1999. In 1995–1999, 17 ponds were restored by clearing aquatic vegetation and excavation. Electric fences were installed around ponds during the summer to exclude cattle and sheep. Fences were removed after toadlet emergence. Eggs, tadpoles and toadlets were counted at least four times in each pond in May–August 1991–1992 and 1994–1999.

Restore ponds Amphibian Conservation

A replicated, before-and-after study in 1991–1999 in a reserve in Caerlaverock, Scotland, UK (Phillips, Patterson & Shimmings 2002) found that pond restoration increased the number of ponds used by breeding natterjack toads Bufo calamita. Out of 12 ponds restored in 1995–1998, 11 were used for breeding every year until 1999, compared to just four before restoration. Overall, breeding occurred one or two years after restoration in eight ponds that had not been used for breeding during the previous two or more years. All ponds used before restoration were still used for breeding and there was little change in use of unmanaged ponds. In 1995–1999, 17 ponds were restored by clearing aquatic vegetation, excavation and redefinition. Electric fences were installed around ponds during the summer to exclude cattle and sheep. Fences were removed after toadlet emergence. Ponds were visited at least four times in May–August 1991–1992 and 1994–1999 to count eggs, tadpoles and toadlets.