Response of amphibians to restoration of a southern Appalachian wetland: a long-term analysis of community dynamics

  • Published source details Petranka J.W., Kennedy C.A. & Murray S.S. (2003) Response of amphibians to restoration of a southern Appalachian wetland: a long-term analysis of community dynamics. Wetlands, 23, 1030-1042.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create ponds for amphibians

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Create ponds for amphibians

    A replicated, site comparison study in 1996–2002 of 10 constructed ponds within a wetland restoration area in North Carolina, USA (Petranka, Kennedy & Murray 2003) found that created ponds were rapidly colonized by amphibians and contained significantly more breeding species than natural ponds (4 vs 3/pond; see also Petranka, Murray & Kennedy 2003, Petranka & Holbrook 2006). Overall, seven species bred in created ponds within the first year and 10 species in 2002. Species richness reached equilibrium within two years. A total of 10 species bred in natural ponds. One species was only recorded in one natural pond. Six species occupied constructed ponds significantly more frequently than natural ponds (33–99 vs 0–78%). Occupancy of pond types by the other four species did not differ significantly (0–99 vs 9–93%). Ten ponds were created in 1995–1996 (average 480 m2). Restoration in 1996–2002 also included restoring original channels, filling ditches, removing fill and planting native trees. Ten natural ponds were surveyed for comparison. Ponds were surveyed using dip-netting and open-bottomed samplers each 1–3 weeks in January-August each year.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust