Wetland restoration for amphibians: should local sites be designed to support metapopulations or patchy populations?

  • Published source details Petranka J.W. & Holbrook C.T. (2006) Wetland restoration for amphibians: should local sites be designed to support metapopulations or patchy populations?. Restoration Ecology, 14, 404-411.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create ponds for amphibians

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Create ponds for amphibians

    In a continuation of a study in North Carolina, USA (Petranka, Kennedy, Murray 2003, Petranka, Murray & Kennedy 2003), a replicated site comparison study (Petranka & Holbrook 2006) found that wood frogs stopped using and spotted salamanders reduced their use of constructed ponds for breeding following the introduction of fish. Egg mass numbers decreased by 97% for wood frogs and 69% for spotted salamander the year after fish introduction. Adults appeared to rapidly recolonize if fish disappeared. Where egg masses were deposited, salamander tadpoles were absent from five of six ponds with fish, compared to just one of nine ponds without fish. Hatchling survival decreased by 96% in ponds with fish relative to fish-free ponds. Fish were introduced five to seven years after construction.


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