Individual study: Using cameras to monitor tunnel use by long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum): an informative, cost-efficient technique
Pagnucco K.S., Paszkowski C.A. & Scrimgeour G.J. (2011) Using cameras to monitor tunnel use by long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum): an informative, cost-efficient technique. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 6, 277-286
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings
A small, replicated study in 2009 of four amphibian tunnels in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta, Canada (Pagnucco, Paszkowski & Scrimgeour 2011) found that 8% of the estimated breeding population of long-toed salamanders Ambystoma macrodactylum used the tunnels. A total of 104 salamanders were captured in pitfall traps and at least another 26 by cameras in tunnels. Five western toad Anaxyrus boreas and seven barred tiger salamander Ambystoma mavortium were also recorded in the tunnels. Only one case of snake predation was recorded by cameras. Four concrete tunnels were installed 80–110 m apart under the road (0.6 x 0.5 m, 12 m long). Digital cameras were installed on the ceilings of tunnel entrances to monitor tunnel floors with motion-triggered and timed-interval images. One pitfall trap was installed at each tunnel exit in April–August.