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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Birds, amphibians and reptiles successfully colonised a created wetland in Nairobi, Kenya

Published source details

Nyakang’o J.B. & vanBruggen J.J.A. (1999) Combination of a well functioning constructed wetland with a pleasing landscape design in Nairobi, Kenya. Water Science and Technology, 40, 249-256


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Create wetland Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1996–1997 of a created wetland in Nairobi, Kenya (Nyakang’o & van Bruggen 1999) found that eight species of amphibians used the wetland. Seven species of frog and common toads Bufo bufo were recorded in the wetland. In 1996, a 0.5 ha wetland was constructed using a combination of a sub-surface horizontal flow system planted with Typha, followed by a series of three pond systems planted with a variety of species including local reeds and ornamental plants. Ponds were shallow near the shore with deep sections in the centre (1.5 m).