Effects of Phalaris arundinacea and nitrate-N addition on the establishment of wetland plant communities

  • Published source details Green E.K. & Galatowitsch S.M. (2002) Effects of Phalaris arundinacea and nitrate-N addition on the establishment of wetland plant communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 134-144.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Introduce seeds of non-woody plants: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Introduce seeds of non-woody plants: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, before-and-after study in 1998–1999 in two experimental wet basins in Minnesota, USA (Green & Galatowitsch 2002) reported that 11 of 11 sown wetland herb species established. After 15 months, all 11 sown species were present as plants. The most abundant species was mannagrass Glyceria grandis (above-ground biomass: 248–681 g/m2). Total above-ground biomass was 1,915–3,079 g/m2 (including native grass-like plants: 366–1,252 g/m2; native forbs: 386–1,932 g/m2). Methods: In May 1998, seeds of 11 native sedge meadow grass-like plants and forbs were sown into sixty 1.13-m2 plots across two saturated wet basins (equal mix of all 11 species in each plot; total 1,500 viable seeds/m2). Seeds were dipped in bleach, then stored cold (4°C) and wet for 46 days before sowing. In October 1997, the plots had been levelled, enclosed in a plastic barrier, and treated with a chemical to kill all seeds in the soil.  For experimental reasons, 30 plots also received seeds of invasive reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea (136 viable seeds/m2) and 40 plots were fertilized to simulate pollution. Vegetation was cut from one 0.5-m2 quadrat/plot in August 1999, then dried and weighed. This study used the same site as (3) and (7), but a different experimental set-up.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 19

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust