Individual study: Captive breeding program for the Kihansi spray toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis) at the Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York
Lee S., Zippel K.C., Ramos L. & Searle J. (2006) Captive breeding program for the Kihansi spray toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis) at the Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York. International Zoo Yearbook, 40, 241-253
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Captive breeding toads
A replicated study in 2000–2006 of Kihansi spray toads Nectophrynoides asperginis at zoos in the USA (Lee et al. 2006) found that toads bred successfully in captivity. Within the first six months, 82% of 269 founders and 43% of toadlets died. However, by 2006 this captive population was 159 toads. A total of 401 toadlets were born in the first year, with second generation toads born the following year. A second captive population of 230 founders initially doubled, declined to 32 toads and then increased to 130 by 2006. Ceasing or reducing misting inhibited reproductive activity. Primary diseases were lungworm infection and Gram-negative septicaemia; other health issues were also recorded. In November 2000, 499 adults were collected from the one remaining wild population. Following quarantine, the 269 toads maintained at Bronx Zoo were separated into 13 groups of 20–31 toads. Aquaria (38–76 L) were misted 4–9 times/day. Toadlets were transferred into smaller aquariums. The other 230 toads were transported to the National Amphibian Conservation Center (three zoos).