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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: The release of Puerto Rican crested toads: captive management implications and the cactus connection

Published source details

Johnson B. & Paine F. (1989) The release of Puerto Rican crested toads: captive management implications and the cactus connection. Regional Meetings of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, 962-967.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Release captive-bred toads Amphibian Conservation

A study in 1988 in Guanica, Puerto Rico (Johnson & Paine 1989) found that four of 12 captive-bred Puerto Rican crested toads Peltophryne lemur were predated by non-native Indian mongoose Herpestes palustris within two days of release. Twelve two-year-old captive-bred toads were fitted with radio-transmitters and were released into the breeding ponds that their parents had been collected from.

Captive breeding toads Amphibian Conservation

A replicated study in 1984–1989 of captive Puerto Rican crested toads Peltophryne lemur in Toronto Zoo, Canada and Buffalo Zoo, USA (Johnson & Paine 1989) found that they bred successfully in captivity. Over 3,000 captive-bred toadlets and 12 two-year old toads were released and 400 toadlets sent to other zoos. A small land area or ‘beach’ was created at one end of each tank by slowly reducing the water level, to simulate pond drying. Shelter habitat, such as halved coconuts, were provided for emerging toadlets to prevent dessication.