Individual study: Underpass systems for amphibians
Jackson S.D. (1996) Underpass systems for amphibians. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, 240–244.
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings
A small, replicated study in 1988 of two amphibian tunnels under a road in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA (Jackson 1996) found that 76% of spotted salamanders Ambystoma maculatum that reached tunnel entrances successfully passed through (n = 87). Of the salamanders recorded along fences 68% (n = 95) passed through tunnels. Salamanders that encountered fences furthest from the tunnels were reached tunnels as successfully as those that encountered the fence closer to the entrances. Once artificial light was provided, salamanders entered and passed through tunnels faster. Tunnels were installed approximately 60 m apart with 30 m long (0.3 m high) drift-fences to direct salamanders to the entrances. Tunnels allowed some rain to enter to maintain moist conditions, but were prevented from flooding. Tunnels and fences were monitored by observations on four nights during spring 1988.