Individual study: Effects of the disinfectant Virkin S on early life-stages of the moor frog (Rana arvalis)
Hangartner S. & Laurila A. (2012) Effects of the disinfectant Virkin S on early life-stages of the moor frog (Rana arvalis). Amphibia-Reptilia, 33, 349-353
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Sterilize equipment when moving between amphibian sites
A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2011 of captive moor frogs Rana arvalis at Uppsala University, Sweden (Hangartner & Laurila 2012) found that Virkon S disinfectant had no significant effects on moor frog embryos and hatchlings, but did reduce hatching success. Embryonic survival was significantly lower in the low (92%), but not high concentration of Virkon S (94%) compared to the control (99%). Abnormalities were infrequent in all treatments (low: 3%; high: 4%; control: 1%). Hatchling body length did not differ between treatments (5 mm). However, hatching success was lower with Virkon S compared to without, suggesting that it may have weak negative effects on amphibian embryos. Embryos and hatchlings were reared at 19°C in high (5 mg/L) and low (0.5 mg/L) Virkon S concentrations and in a control of water. One embryo and six hatchlings from each of six clutches were used per treatment. Survival was recorded daily until the free swimming stage and hatchling length for seven days.