An epizootic of cutaneous zygomycosis in cultured dwarf African clawed frogs (Hymenochirus curtipes) due to Basidiobolus ranarum

  • Published source details Groff J.M., Mughannam A., McDowell T.S., Wong A., Dykstra M.J., Frye F.L. & Hedrick R.P. (1991) An epizootic of cutaneous zygomycosis in cultured dwarf African clawed frogs (Hymenochirus curtipes) due to Basidiobolus ranarum. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 29, 215-223


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection

    A replicated, controlled study of captive amphibians in the USA (Groff et al. 1991) found that benzalkonium chloride was more effective at reducing chytrid infection (misdiagnosed as Basidiobolus ranarum (Berger, Speare, Pessier, Voyles & Skerratt 2010)) than copper sulphate or formalin-malachite green in dwarf African clawed frogs Hymenochirus curtipes. Mortality at day 24 was lower for 2 mg/l benzalkonium chloride (10%), compared to 4 mg/l benzalkonium chloride (16%), 1 mg/l copper sulphate (30%) and formalin (10 mg/l)-malachite green (0.8 mg/l; 25%). In the control group 74% died. Frogs treated with 2 mg/l benzalkonium chloride that survived had only mild infections compared to moderate to severe infections following the other two treatments. A group of 135 frogs from an infected population was bathed in each treatment. Frogs were bathed for 30 minutes on alternate days over six days, this was repeated after eight days. There was an untreated control group of 130 frogs. Five frogs from each group were examined for infection before treatment and on days 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 after treatment had started. The study ended after 24 days.


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