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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Thirty six of 85 amphibian and reptile translocation projects published in 1991-2006 were considered successful

Published source details

Germano J.M. & Bishop P.J. (2009) Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation. Conservation Biology, 23, 7-15


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Translocate amphibians Amphibian Conservation

A review of 38 global amphibian translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that half were considered successful, with evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 38 translocation projects reviewed (25 species), 52% were successful, 29% failed and long-term success was uncertain for 19%. Projects releasing over 1,000 animals were significantly more successful (success: 65%) than those releasing less than 100 (0%) or 101–1,000 animals (38%). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, combination), life-stage translocated, continent and motivation for translocation (conservation: 90%; human-wildlife conflict: 8%; research: 3%). Translocations were of eggs, larvae and metamorphs in 71% of cases, adults in 45% and juveniles in 21% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 76% of projects. The most common reported causes of failure were homing and migration and poor habitat. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes for the species to reach maturity.