Study

Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation

  • Published source details Germano J.M. & Bishop P.J. (2009) Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation. Conservation Biology, 23, 7-15.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Translocate reptiles away from threats: Tuatara

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Reptile Conservation

Translocate reptiles away from threats: Crocodilians

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Reptile Conservation

Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Tuatara

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Crocodilians

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Crocodilians

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Tuatara

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate reptiles away from threats: Snakes and lizards

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate problem reptiles

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Snakes & lizards

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate amphibians

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Translocate reptiles away from threats: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Lizards

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Snakes

Action Link
Reptile Conservation

Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles

Action Link
Reptile Conservation
  1. Translocate reptiles away from threats: Tuatara

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that translocations of reptiles away from threats and translocations of ‘problem’ reptiles (mitigation translocations) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. Translocations to mitigate impacts of building and development and ‘problem’ reptiles were combined. Mitigation translocations failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region. Mitigation translocations included building and development mitigation as well as those used to deal with ‘problem’ animals. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  2. Translocate reptiles away from threats: Crocodilians

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that translocations of reptiles away from threats and translocations of ‘problem’ reptiles (mitigation translocations) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. Translocations to mitigate impacts of building and development and ‘problem’ reptiles were combined. Mitigation translocations failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region. Mitigation translocations included building and development mitigation as well as those used to deal with ‘problem’ animals. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  3. Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Tuatara

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third of the projects, that included some releases of captive-bred animals, were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated/released, number of animals released and geographic region (see paper for details). Releases of captive-bred animals made up 7% of the projects, and individuals involved were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  4. Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Crocodilians

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third of the projects, that included some releases of captive-bred animals, were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated/released, number of animals released and geographic region (see paper for details). Releases of captive-bred animals made up 7% of the projects, and individuals involved were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  5. Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Crocodilians

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 reptile species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, and combination), life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region (see original paper for details). Translocated animals were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 93% of projects. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity. 

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  6. Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third of the projects, that included some releases of captive-bred animals, were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated/released, number of animals released and geographic region (see paper for details). Releases of captive-bred animals made up 7% of the projects, and individuals involved were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  7. Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Tuatara

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 reptile species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, and combination), life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region (see original paper for details). Translocated animals were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 93% of projects. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  8. Translocate reptiles away from threats: Snakes and lizards

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that translocations of reptiles away from threats and translocation of ‘problem’ reptiles (mitigation translocations) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. Translocations to mitigate impacts of building and development and ‘problem’ reptiles were combined. Mitigation translocations failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region. Mitigation translocations included building and development mitigation as well as those used to deal with ‘problem’ animals. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  9. Translocate problem reptiles

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that translocations carried out because of human-wildlife conflict (mitigation translocations) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. Translocations to mitigate impacts of “problem” reptiles and building and development were combined. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region. Mitigation translocations included those used to deal with “problem” animals, as well as building and development mitigation. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  10. Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Snakes & lizards

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third of the projects, that included some releases of captive-bred animals, were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated/released, number of animals released and geographic region (see paper for details). Releases of captive-bred animals made up 7% of the projects, and individuals involved were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  11. Translocate amphibians

    A review of 38 global amphibian translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that half were considered successful, with evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 38 translocation projects reviewed (25 species), 52% were successful, 29% failed and long-term success was uncertain for 19%. Projects releasing over 1,000 animals were significantly more successful (success: 65%) than those releasing less than 100 (0%) or 101–1,000 animals (38%). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, combination), life-stage translocated, continent and motivation for translocation (conservation: 90%; human-wildlife conflict: 8%; research: 3%). Translocations were of eggs, larvae and metamorphs in 71% of cases, adults in 45% and juveniles in 21% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 76% of projects. The most common reported causes of failure were homing and migration and poor habitat. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes for the species to reach maturity.

     

  12. Translocate reptiles away from threats: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that translocations of reptiles away from threats and translocations of ‘problem’ reptiles (mitigation translocations) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. Translocations to mitigate impacts of building and development and ‘problem’ reptiles were combined. Mitigation translocations failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region. Mitigation translocations included building and development mitigation as well as those used to deal with “problem” animals. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  13. Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Lizards

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 reptile species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, and combination), life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region (see original paper for details). Translocated animals were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 93% of projects. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity. 

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  14. Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Snakes

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 reptile species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, and combination), life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region (see original paper for details). Translocated animals were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 93% of projects. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity. 

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

  15. Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles

    A review of worldwide reptile translocation projects during 1991–2006 (Germano & Bishop 2009) found that a third were considered successful with substantial recruitment to the adult population. Of the 47 translocation projects reviewed (39 reptile species), 32% were successful, 28% failed and long-term success was uncertain for the remaining 40%. Projects that translocated animals due to human-wildlife conflicts failed more often (63% of 8 projects) than those for conservation purposes (15% of 38) and those for research purposes (50% of 5). Success was independent of the source of animals (wild, captive, and combination), life-stage translocated, number of animals released and geographic region (see original paper for details). Translocated animals were adults in 75% of cases, juveniles and sub-adults in 64% of cases and eggs in 4% of cases. Wild animals were translocated in 93% of projects. The most common reported cause of failure was homing and migration with the second most common reported cause being insufficient numbers, human collection and food/nutrient limitation all equally reported. Success was defined as evidence of substantial recruitment to the adult population during monitoring over a period at least as long as it takes the species to reach maturity.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, Katie Sainsbury)

Output references
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