Individual study: The principles of rapid response for amphibian conservation, using the programmes in Panama as an example
Gagliardo R., Crump P., Griffith E., Mendelson J., Ross H. & Zippel K. (2008) The principles of rapid response for amphibian conservation, using the programmes in Panama as an example. International Zoo Yearbook, 42, 125–135
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Captive breeding harlequin toads (Atelopus species)
A review of captive breeding programmes in 2001–2007 of priority amphibian species from Panama at 50 zoos and aquariums in the USA (Gagliardo et al. 2008) found that Panamanian golden frogs Atelopus zeteki bred successfully in captivity. By 2007, 41 of 111 wild-caught Panamanian golden frogs Atelopus zeteki were surviving and there were over 1,500 frogs in the captive-breeding population. In 2001–2005, 111 Panamanian golden frogs were collected, including 26 pairs and 59 newly metamorphosed froglets. Strict quarantine and hygiene protocols were enforced. Animals were tested for chytrid and treated with Itraconazole.
Captive breeding frogs
A review of captive breeding programmes in 2001–2007 of priority amphibian species from Panama at 50 zoos and aquariums in the USA (Gagliardo et al. 2008) found that maintenance and breeding in captivity had mixed success. Several of 30 species collected bred successfully in captivity including lemur leaf frog Hylomantis lemur, Pratt's rocket frog Colostethus pratti, marsupial frog Gastrotheca cornuta, spiny-headed treefrog Anotheca spinosa, Vicente's poison frog Dendrobates vicentei, minute poison frog Minyobates minutus, Eleutherodactylus gaigae and caretta robber frog Pristimantis diastema. However, some have proved difficult to raise to adulthood due to nutritional issues (e.g. marsupial frog). Species such as Palmer's treefrog Hyloscirtus palmeri and banded horned treefrog Hemiphractus fasciatus proved very difficult to maintain in captivity. Death was often related to malnutrition. Up to 40 individuals of nearly 30 species were wild caught.