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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Houston toad population supplementation in Texas, USA

Published source details

Forstner M.R.J. & Crump P. (2011) Houston toad population supplementation in Texas, USA. Pages 71-76 in: Global Re-introduction Perspectives: 2011. More case studies from around the globe. IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group & Abu Dhabi Environment Agency, Gland, Switzerland.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Head-start amphibians for release Amphibian Conservation

A replicated study in 2007–2012 of Houston toads Anaxyrus houstonensis in Texas, USA (Forstner & Crump 2011, Crump 2012) found that eggs were successfully reared to toads in captivity. In 2007, 35% of juveniles survived in captivity and by 2010 survival had increased to 50–55%. By 2012, approximately 700 toads were held in three captive breeding facilities. In 2007, 500 toads were released, in 2009 it was 4,194 and in 2010, 14,728 were released back into the wild at 10 sites. Thirty-one egg strands were collected from the wild and tadpoles raised in biosecure rooms and four outdoor exclosure tubs.