Pathological changes of the blood cells in fluconazole treated toads

  • Published source details Essawya A.E., El-Zoheirya A.H., El-Moftya M.M., Helalb S.F. & El-Bardana E.M. (2005) Pathological changes of the blood cells in fluconazole treated toads. ScienceAsia, 31, 43-47.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection

    A replicated, controlled study in 2004 at the University of Alexandria, Egypt (Essawya et al. 2005) found that when fluconazole was swallowed by square-marked toads Bufo regularis there were significant changes in blood cells, similar to the effects of a carcinogen. White blood cell structure changed in 60% of the toads force-fed with fluconazole and 80% fed with a carcinogen. Controls showed no change. Most white blood cells showed changes such as nuclear abnormalities, vacuolated cytoplasm and reduced organelles. Red blood cells were anaemic with fragmented or degenerated nuclei, long cytoplasmic projections and vacuolated cytoplasm. Fifty adults were force-fed one of the following treatments for 20 weeks: fluconazole daily at a therapeutic dose level (0.26 mg in 0.5 ml saline), a carcinogenic chemical 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (0.5 mg in 0.2 ml olive oil) twice/week, a control of 0.2 ml of olive oil or of 0.5 ml saline. Blood samples were obtained from the heart and examined after 20 weeks.


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