Study

The potential for golf courses to support restoration of biodiversity for biobanking offsets

  • Published source details Burgin S. & Wotherspoon D. (2009) The potential for golf courses to support restoration of biodiversity for biobanking offsets. Urban Ecosystems, 12, 145-155.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Change mowing regime

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Retain buffer zones around core habitat

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Create refuges

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Replant vegetation

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation

Clear vegetation

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Change mowing regime

    A before-and-after study in 1996–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included changing the mowing regime resulted in an increase in frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area of which 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. The mowing regime was changed to maintain taller areas of rough grass. In addition, during mowing a narrow band of herb vegetation was retained around ponds as a buffer zone for amphibians. Endemic shrubs and trees were planted, non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  2. Retain buffer zones around core habitat

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included leaving unmown buffers around ponds increased frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. In addition, native shrubs and trees were planted, non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  3. Create refuges

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included reintroducing coarse woody debris to the woodland floor increased frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration was undertaken in 1997–2001. Coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor, endemic shrubs and trees were planted and non-native weeds were removed. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  4. Replant vegetation

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included planting increased frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. Endemic shrubs and trees were planted, non-native weeds were removed and coarse woody debris was reintroduced onto the woodland floor. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

  5. Clear vegetation

    A before-and-after study in 1997–2004 of a golf course with degraded woodland and grassland in Sydney, Australia (Burgin & Wotherspoon 2009) found that restoration that included removing non-native weeds resulted in an increase in frog species over two years. Frogs increased from seven to 10 species in the first year and then remained stable for the following six years. A total of 18 species of frogs were predicted in the area and so 56% were present following restoration. The golf course was developed in 1993 and restoration undertaken in 1997–2001. Non-native weeds were removed, endemic shrubs and trees were planted and coarse woody debris was reintroduced to the woodland floor. The mowing regime was changed to develop grasslands and a narrow band of herb vegetation retained around ponds as a buffer zone. Pond perimeters were walked to record frog calls in 1996–2004.

     

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust