Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Monitoring the conservation status of an endangered amphibian: the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain

Published source details

Buckley J. & Beebee T.J.C. (2004) Monitoring the conservation status of an endangered amphibian: the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain. Animal Conservation, 7, 221-228


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Clear vegetation Amphibian Conservation

A replicated, before-and-after study in 1972–1999 at two sites in England, UK (Buckley & Beebee 2004) found that vegetation clearance, along with pond creation and restoration and release of captive-reared toadlets increased natterjack toad Bufo calamita populations over 20 years. The continuation of a study in 1972–1991 (Banks, Beebee & Denton 1993) until 1999 indicated that there was a doubling of the population. Spawn string counts (female population) increased from 15 in 1972 to 32 in 1999, with a maximum number of 48 in 1989. At a second site, spawn string counts increased from 1 in 1973 to 8 in 1999, with a maximum number of 29 in 1997. Ponds were created and restored by excavation, scrub and bracken was cleared and captive-reared toadlets raised from spawn and released. Toads were monitored annually.

 

Create ponds for natterjack toads Amphibian Conservation

A replicated, before-and-after study in 1972–1999 at two sites in England, UK (Buckley & Beebee 2004) found that pond creation and restoration, along with other interventions, increased natterjack toad Bufo calamita populations over 20 years. The continuation of a study in Hampshire, UK in 1972–1991 (Banks, Beebee & Denton 1993) until 1999 indicated that there was a doubling of the population. Spawn string counts (female population) increased from 15 in 1972 to 32 in 1999, with a maximum number of 48 in 1989. At a second site, egg string counts increased from 1 in 1973 to 8 in 1999, with a maximum number of 29 in 1997. Ponds were created and restored by excavation, scrub and bracken was cleared and head-started toadlets were released. Toads were monitored annually.

 

Deepen, de-silt or re-profile ponds Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1972–1999 of natterjack toads Bufo calamita at two sites in England, UK (Buckley & Beebee 2004) found that pond restoration and creation, vegetation clearance and captive-rearing toadlets resulted in population increases over 20 years. The continuation of a study in Hampshire, UK in 1972–1991 (Banks, Beebee & Denton 1993) until 1999 indicated that there was a doubling of the population. Egg string counts (female population) increased from 15 in 1972 to 32 in 1999, with a maximum number of 48 in 1989. At a second site, spawn string counts increased from 1 in 1973 to 8 in 1999, with a maximum number of 29 in 1997. Ponds were created and restored by excavation, scrub and bracken was cleared and captive-reared toadlets raised from eggs and released. Toads were monitored annually.

 

(Summarised by Rebecca K Smith)

Head-start amphibians for release Amphibian Conservation

A replicated, before-and-after study in 1972–1999 of natterjack toads Bufo calamita at two sites in England, UK (Buckley & Beebee 2004) found that captive-rearing toadlets, along with pond creation and restoration and vegetation clearance, increased populations over 20 years. At one site, the continuation of a study in 1972–1991 (Banks, Beebee & Denton 1993) until 1999 indicated that there was a doubling of the population. Egg string counts (i.e. female population) increased from 15 in 1972 to 32 in 1999, with a maximum number of 48 in 1989. At a second site, where head-starting had been undertaken most years since 1980, egg string counts increased from 1 in 1973 to 8 in 1999, with a maximum number of 29 in 1997. Ponds were created and restored by excavation, scrub and bracken was cleared and captive-reared toadlets raised from eggs and released. Toads were monitored annually.