Individual study: Clinical trials with itraconazole as a treatment for chytrid fungal infections in amphibians
Brannelly L.A., Richards-Zawacki C.L. & Pessier A.P. (2012) Clinical trials with itraconazole as a treatment for chytrid fungal infections in amphibians. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 101, 95-104
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection
A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2011 of captive amphibians in the USA (Brannelly, Richards-Zawacki & Pessier 2012) found that Australian green tree frogs Litoria caerulea and coastal-plain toads Incilius nebulifer treated with itraconazole were cured of chytridiomycosis. Itraconazole at 0.01, 0.005 and 0.003 but not 0.001% cured infection. Survival was highest with 0.003% itraconazole. However, itraconazole caused death, loss of appetite, lethargy and skin discolouration, particularly at 0.01 and 0.005%. Survival did not differ between infected animals treated for six or 11 days with 0.003% or six days with 0.005% itraconazole and untreated animals. However, treatment with all other concentrations for 11 days resulted in reduced survival (0.01%: 66–100% mortality) compared to infected untreated animals. Nine separately housed green froglets and 9–17 communally housed toadlets were randomly assigned to each treatment: infection with chytrid, infection and itraconazole baths for 5 minutes for six or 11 days and an uninfected control. Skin swabs were taken for four weeks after treatment.