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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Clinical trials with itraconazole as a treatment for chytrid fungal infections in amphibians

Published source details

Brannelly L.A., Richards-Zawacki C.L. & Pessier A.P. (2012) Clinical trials with itraconazole as a treatment for chytrid fungal infections in amphibians. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 101, 95-104


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection Amphibian Conservation

A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2011 of captive amphibians in the USA (Brannelly, Richards-Zawacki & Pessier 2012) found that Australian green tree frogs Litoria caerulea and coastal-plain toads Incilius nebulifer treated with itraconazole were cured of chytridiomycosis. Itraconazole at 0.01, 0.005 and 0.003 but not 0.001% cured infection. Survival was highest with 0.003% itraconazole. However, itraconazole caused death, loss of appetite, lethargy and skin discolouration, particularly at 0.01 and 0.005%. Survival did not differ between infected animals treated for six or 11 days with 0.003% or six days with 0.005% itraconazole and untreated animals. However, treatment with all other concentrations for 11 days resulted in reduced survival (0.01%: 66–100% mortality) compared to infected untreated animals. Nine separately housed green froglets and 9–17 communally housed toadlets were randomly assigned to each treatment: infection with chytrid, infection and itraconazole baths for 5 minutes for six or 11 days and an uninfected control. Skin swabs were taken for four weeks after treatment.