Study

Towards a better understanding of the use of probiotics for preventing chytridiomycosis in Panamanian golden frogs

  • Published source details Becker M.H., Harris R.N., Minbiole K.P.C., Schwantes C.R., Rollins-Smith L.A., Reinert L.K., Brucker R.M., Domangue R.J. & Gratwicke B. (2011) Towards a better understanding of the use of probiotics for preventing chytridiomycosis in Panamanian golden frogs. EcoHealth, 8, 501-506

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use antifungal skin bacteria or peptides to reduce chytridiomycosis infection

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Use antifungal skin bacteria or peptides to reduce chytridiomycosis infection

    A randomized, replicated, controlled study in a laboratory in the USA (Becker et al. 2011) found that although the chytrid-inhibiting skin bacteria Janthinobacterium lividum colonized skin temporarily, it did not reduce or delay death of chytrid infected Panamanian golden frogs Atelopus zeteki. All infected frogs died within four months, whereas all control frogs survived. Although mortality and overall chytrid load did not differ between frogs exposed and not exposed to the bacteria, at death those exposed had significantly lower numbers of chytrid zoospores (1.5 x 105 vs 1.3 x 106). Colonization by the bacteria was successful on 95% of frogs. However, by day 39 bacterial cell counts had declined (<2.8 x 105 cells/frog), infection with chytrid had increased (>13,000 zoospore equivalents/frog) and frogs began to die. Frogs were randomly assigned to one of four exposure treatments: anti-chytrid skin bacteria, chytrid zoospores, bacteria followed by chytrid or water alone. Sample sizes were 7, 20, 20 and 7 respectively. Bacteria were isolated from four-toed salamanders Hemidactylium scutatum. Frogs were swabbed every two weeks for 120 days to test for chytrid and bacteria.

     

Output references

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, terrestrial mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Subscribe to our newsletter

Please add your details if you are interested in receiving updates from the Conservation Evidence team about new papers, synopses and opportunities.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust