Individual study: Embryonic and larval survival of the common frog (Rana temporaria) with particular reference to acidic and limed ponds
Beattie R.C., Aston R.J. & Milner A.G.P. (1993) Embryonic and larval survival of the common frog (Rana temporaria) with particular reference to acidic and limed ponds. Herpetological Journal, 3, 43-48
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Add lime to water bodies to reduce acidification
A controlled before-and-after study in 1985–1989 of two acidic upland ponds in England, UK (Beattie et al 1993) found that adding limestone resulted in a significant increase in egg and larval survival of common frogs Rana temporaria. Egg survival increased from 0–22 to 69–93% the season after liming, but decreased the following year (93 to 79%). The treated pond had significantly higher egg survival, but also significantly higher numbers of abnormal eggs at day 14 than the control (3.0 vs 2.4%). At least 2% of eggs in limed ponds produced metamorphs. In 1988 and 1989, 20 egg clumps were removed from a pond and each halved. Half was returned to the original pond, which had powdered limestone spread over its surface (250 g/m2; 70 m2). Half were placed in a control pond (160 m2), where frogs had not spawned since 1975. Both ponds received limestone in 1989 (333 mg/L). Eggs were removed at days 7, 14 and 19 and reared in the lab or a container in the ponds. Larvae were counted in ponds in July–August.