Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Embryonic and larval survival of the common frog (Rana temporaria) with particular reference to acidic and limed ponds

Published source details

Beattie R.C., Aston R.J. & Milner A.G.P. (1993) Embryonic and larval survival of the common frog (Rana temporaria) with particular reference to acidic and limed ponds. Herpetological Journal, 3, 43-48


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Add lime to water bodies to reduce acidification Amphibian Conservation

A controlled before-and-after study in 1985–1989 of two acidic upland ponds in England, UK (Beattie et al 1993) found that adding limestone resulted in a significant increase in egg and larval survival of common frogs Rana temporaria. Egg survival increased from 0–22 to 69–93% the season after liming, but decreased the following year (93 to 79%). The treated pond had significantly higher egg survival, but also significantly higher numbers of abnormal eggs at day 14 than the control (3.0 vs 2.4%). At least 2% of eggs in limed ponds produced metamorphs. In 1988 and 1989, 20 egg clumps were removed from a pond and each halved. Half was returned to the original pond, which had powdered limestone spread over its surface (250 g/m2; 70 m2). Half were placed in a control pond (160 m2), where frogs had not spawned since 1975. Both ponds received limestone in 1989 (333 mg/L). Eggs were removed at days 7, 14 and 19 and reared in the lab or a container in the ponds. Larvae were counted in ponds in July–August.