Conservation of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain over the period 1976-1990 in relation to site protection and other factors

  • Published source details Banks B., Beebee T.J.C. & Cooke K.S. (1994) Conservation of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain over the period 1976-1990 in relation to site protection and other factors. Biological Conservation, 67, 11-118.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Protect habitats for amphibians

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Protect habitats for amphibians

    A replicated, site comparison study in 1970–1989 of natterjack toads Bufo calamita in the UK (Banks, Beebee & Cooke 1994) found that populations at sites with a statutory level of habitat protection were better protected than those outside protected areas. Populations within Sites of Special Scientific Interest or National nature Reserves were better protected from damaging activities (before 1980: 40%; 1989: 100% of threats defended) than those outside (0–29%). Protection for natterjacks in the wider countryside did not improve following Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 (1970–1979: 0–20%; 1980–1989: 0–29%). Populations that were not ‘protected’ were either lost, damaged or had a planning decision made against their conservation interest. ‘Damaging activities’ included direct development such as caravan parks or intensification of agriculture. Surveys of known and new populations were undertaken annually.


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