Effectiveness of road tunnels for the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander

  • Published source details Allaback M.L. & Laabs D.M. (2002) Effectiveness of road tunnels for the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society, 38/39, 5-8.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings

    A small, replicated study in 2000–2001 of two amphibian tunnels constructed under a road in a residential development in Santa Cruz County, California, USA (Allaback & Laabs 2002-2003) found that a small proportion of migrating Santa Cruz long-toed salamanders Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum used tunnels. A total of 23 adult salamanders passed through the tunnels. Of the 44 adults marked along the drift-fence, only four (9%) were captured on the opposite side of one tunnel and none for the other. The two cement polymer amphibian tunnels were installed in 1999. They were 0.3 x 0.5 m or 0.2 x 0.2 m and 11–12 m long. Entrances were screened with mesh to reduce predator access. Drift-fences (0.4–0.8 m high) were permanently installed at tunnel entrances and along the road to connect tunnels (300 m). Salamanders were monitored by visual survey along the drift-fence on five rainy nights in December–January. Each animal was marked. Pitfall traps captured individuals passing through tunnels.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust