Individual study: Short-term effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) populations and habitat in northeastern Oregon
Adams M.J., Pearl C.A., Mccreary B., Galvan K., Wessell S.J., Wente W.H., Anderson C.W. & Kuehl A.B. (2009) Short-term effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) populations and habitat in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Herpetology, 43, 132-138
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs by fencing
A randomized, replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in 2002–2006 of 12 ponds in Oregon, USA (Adams et al. 2009) found that there was no effect of complete or partial cattle exclusion on Columbia spotted frog Rana luteiventris egg numbers, larval survival or size at metamorphosis. There was no significant difference between treatments for egg mass counts (exclusion: 8; partial exclusion: 4; access: 7); pre-treatment counts were 6–11. The same was true for larval survival index (exclusion: 25; partial exclusion: 52; access: 33; pre-treatment: 30–72) and size at metamorphosis (pre-treatment: 28–33 mm; post-treatment: 29–31). Fishless ponds within four blocks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: complete cattle exclusion, exclusion from a section of pond (where most eggs were laid) or no exclusion. Fences were installed in 2003–2005 creating a 1–5 m buffer around ponds. Cattle were present in June–September (25–31 ha/cow-calf pair). Egg masses were counted and a sample of juveniles marked in 2002–2006.