Individual study: Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans
Bakke-McKellop A.M., Koppang E.O., Gunnes G., Sanden M., Hemre G.–I., Landsverk T. & Krogdahl Å. (2007) Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans. Journal of Fish Diseases, 30, 65- 79
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Use genetically modified alternatives
In 2007, a randomised, replicated, controlled study in Norway (Bakke- McKellop et al., 2007) found similarities in survivorship, growth rates and histology between salmon, Salmar salar, fed non-genetically modified and genetically modified soybean diets to replace fish meal. Histological examination of the stomach, pyloric caeca, mid-intestine, liver, spleen, kidney, thymus, brain and muscle tissue revealed no differences that could be attributed to feed composition. For 3 months, groups of salmon were fed one of three diets containing 172g per kilogram genetically modified full-fat soybean meal, an unmodified soybean meal or a reference (control) diet with fish meal as the protein source. Fish were acclimatised for 6 weeks before being fed the experimental diets using automatic feeders. Seven fish were randomly sampled from each tank after 12 weeks for sampling. Survivorship and growth rates were measured and histology investigated.