Individual study: In situ biofiltration: a means to limit the dispersal of effluents from marine finfish cage aquaculture
Angel D.L., Eden N., Breitstein S., Yurman A., Katz T. & Spanier E. (2002) In situ biofiltration: a means to limit the dispersal of effluents from marine finfish cage aquaculture. Hydrobiologia, 469, 1- 10
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Construct artificial reefs
A controlled study in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea between 1999 and 2000 (Angel et al., 2002) found similar levels of sediment carbon between artificial reef sites below and to the west of cages containing farmed gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Three months after deployment of the reef, percentage carbon in all sediment tested was similar, inclusive of a four control sites. Below the farm, there was 3.95% of carbon, compared to the control sites (4.06%). West of the farm, there was 2.25% of carbon, compared to the control sites (2.34%). Two triangular-shaped artificial reefs, made of porous polyethylene, with a total volume of 8.2 m3 were deployed at 20m depth: one below a commercial fish farm and the other 500m west of this farm. Scuba divers sampled sediments every three months for 12 months. Four sampling stations were established 3m from the edge of reefs on either side to act as control sites. Carbon content of sediment samples was measured.