Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: The effect of supplemental feed regime on faecal microflora of wintering red kites Milvus milvus in Castille y Leon and Madrid provinces, central Spain

Published source details

Blanco G., Lemus J.A. & Grande J. (2006) Faecal bacteria associated with different diets of wintering red kites: influence of livestock carcass dumps in microflora alteration and pathogen acquisition. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 990-998


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Can supplementary feeding increase predation or parasitism? Bird Conservation

A replicated, controlled trial in 2004 in Castile and Leon and Madrid, Spain (Blanco et al. 2006), found that red kites Milvus milvus that fed on carrion from stabled livestock had higher levels of potentially harmful gut microflora, compared to birds fed largely on wild rabbits (potentially dangerous Salmonella serotypes found in 25% of 80 faecal samples from colonies fed with livestock vs. 3% of 33 samples from colonies fed on wild rabbits). More generally, gut flora were more similar between the two colonies supplied with livestock, than either were with wild-fed birds. Livestock consisted mainly of domestic pigs Sus scrofa, but also cows, sheep, poultry and domestic rabbits.