Individual study: Long-term manure and fertilizer effects on soil organic matter fractions and microbes under a wheat–maize cropping system in northern China
Gong W., Yan X., Wang J., Hu T. & Gong Y. (2009) Long-term manure and fertilizer effects on soil organic matter fractions and microbes under a wheat–maize cropping system in northern China. Geoderma, 149, 318-324
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Amend the soil using a mix of organic and inorganic amendments
A controlled, randomized, replicated experiment between 1989 and 2007 on sandy-loam soil in Henan Province, China (Gong et al. 2009) found more bacteria and fungi in soil with mixed manure and inorganic fertilizer (5,626 and 21,000 CFU/g) and manure-only (6,725 and 24,000 CFU/g, respectively) treatments compared to the untreated control (2,238 and 7,000 CFU/g respectively). Soil organic carbon was also improved, with 7.2 and 9.4 g C/kg for mixed and manure-only treatments respectively, compared to 3.9 g C/kg in the control. The treatments used were: organic manure, half organic manure with mineral fertilizer, NPK, NP, PK and NK mineral fertilizers, and an unfertilized control treatment. The experiment was performed on wheat Triticum aestivum-maize Zea mays plots measuring 9.5 × 5 m, with four replicates of each treatment. Five soil samples were taken from each plot and mixed prior to analysis.