Individual study: Phytotoxic effects of red clover amended soils on wild mustard seedling growth
Ohno T., Doolan K., Zibilske L.M., Liebman M., Gallandt E.R. & Berube C. (2000) Phytotoxic effects of red clover amended soils on wild mustard seedling growth. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 78, 187-192
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Incorporate plant remains into the soil that produce weed-controlling chemicals
A randomised, replicated, controlled laboratory experiment in 1996 in Maine, USA (Ohno et al. 2000) found that root growth of seedlings of the weed wild mustard Sinapis arvensis was reduced by 20% by extracts of soil containing red clover Trifolium pratense and wheat Triticum aestivum residues incorporated eight days previously, but not at any other time after incorporation. There were two treatments, each replicated four times: incorporated wheat crop stubble residue (approximately 30 kg/ha above ground dry matter biomass); incorporated wheat stubble and red clover Trifolium pratense residue (2,530 kg/ha). Residues were incorporated on 28 May 1996. Beans Phaseolus vulgaris and wild mustard were planted 17 days later. Approximately 25 soil samples/plot were taken 12 days before and 8, 21, 30, 41, 63 and 100 days after residue incorporation. Soil water extracts (5 ml) from the soil samples were applied to 20 pre-germinated wild mustard seedlings in the laboratory which were incubated at 20°C. Rootlet length was measured after 72 hours.