Individual study: The effects of herbicides and tillage on green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica growth and herbaceous vegetation composition in a reforested field along the Saline River, Illinois, USA
Baer S.G. & Groninger J.W. (2004) Herbicide and tillage effects on volunteer vegetation composition and diversity during reforestation. Restoration Ecology, 12, 258-267
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use herbicides after tree planting
A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1999-2002 in temperate broadleaf forest in Illinois, USA (3) found that herbicide treatments during reforestation planting increased seedlings stem volume. The stem volume index was higher in herbicide treatments before and after seedling emergence (135 and 115 cm3 respectively) than in control plots (50 cm3). Stem volume index was calculated in 2002 for 40 ash seedlings (planted in 1999) in each control, after emergence (glyphosate) and before emergence (sulfometuron methyl) herbicide treatments (18 × 30 m) replicated in four blocks. Treatments were applied in 1999.
Use soil scarification or ploughing to enhance germination
A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1999-2002 in temperate broadleaf forest in Illinois, USA (Baer & Groninger 2004) found that ploughing before reforestation planting increased plant species diversity. Plant diversity was higher in ploughing (Shannon's index of diversity: 1.7) than in control plots (1.4). Data were collected in 2002 in a 0.5 m2 plot around each of 60 ash seedlings (planted in 1999) in each control and ploughing (disked to 15 cm depth before planting) treatments (9 × 90 m) replicated in four blocks.