Individual study: Use of sorghum allelopathic properties to control weeds in irrigated wheat in a semi arid region of Punjab
Cheema Z.A. & Khaliq A. (2000) Use of sorghum allelopathic properties to control weeds in irrigated wheat in a semi arid region of Punjab. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 79, 105-112
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Incorporate plant remains into the soil that produce weed-controlling chemicals
A randomised, replicated, controlled trial in 1996-1997 in wheat Triticum sp. fields in Punjab province, Pakistan (Cheema & Khaliq 2000) found plots with sorghum Sorghum bicolor stalks incorporated into the soil had significantly fewer weeds (38-51 plants/m², 20-41% weed suppression) than unweeded controls (64 plants), similar numbers to hand-weeded controls (33 plants, 49% suppression) and more weeds than herbicide-treated controls (12 plants, 82% suppression). Wheat grain yield was 6-17% higher in sorghum residue plots than unweeded controls, 10% higher in hand-weeded than unweeded controls, and 22% higher in herbicide-treated than unweeded controls. The net benefits of sorghum residue (15,040-15,770 Rupees) were similar to those of unweeded controls (15,768 Rupees) but lower than hand-weeding (16,480 Rupees) or herbicide application (17,477 Rupees). After harvesting, sorghum was dried, cut into 2 cm pieces and incorporated 3-5 cm deep during seedbed preparation. Wheat was sown on 21 November 1996, at 45 kg/ha. Plots were 1.5 x 7.5 m with four replicates. There were six treatments: unweeded control; 2, 4, 6 t/ha sorghum residue; herbicide treatment: Chlorotololuron + MCPA at 2.5 kg/ha; hand weeding. Weed density and biomass were recorded in two 1 m² quadrats/plot, 60 or 90 days after sowing.