The appropriateness of puppet-rearing birds for reintroduction

  • Published source details Valutis L.L. & Marzluff J.M. (1999) The appropriateness of puppet-rearing birds for reintroduction. Conservation Biology, 13, 584-591.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use puppets to increase the survival or growth of hand-reared chicks

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Use puppets to increase the survival or growth of hand-reared chicks

    A randomised, replicated and controlled study in Idaho, USA, between 1993 and 1995 (Valutis & Marzluff 1999), found that 25 raven Corvus corax chicks (used as surrogates for Hawaiian crows C. hawaiiensis and Mariana crows C. kubaryi) hand-raised using puppets did not behave differently towards other ravens before or after release, or differ in dispersal from the release site, compared to 49 chicks raised without puppets. Puppet-rearing appeared to increase post-release survival, but the whereabouts of 49% of released birds were unknown, adding considerable uncertainty to this conclusion. Puppet-raised birds were more fearful of keepers following release, which could be beneficial for some species. Puppet-reared birds were separated from each other at 7-10 days old (before their eyes opened).


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